Public issue: The common way of issuing securities to the general public is through a public issue. The securities are traded on a stock exchange like the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). The funds are raised by a company by the sale of shares via a prospectus. The prospectus is an invitation to the public asking them to invest in the shares. The public issue is additionally graded into the following: Initial Public Offer also called IPO: IPO is when the company issues fresh stock to the public. Follow on Public Offer also called FPO: FPO is when the company that was already listed on the stock exchange offers more shares to the public at large. â— Rights issue and Bonus issue: When securities are offered to the already existing investors at a price that is pre-determined is called a rights issue. The rights issue is offered to investors at a low or discounted rate in comparison to the market price. When securities are offered to the already existing investors for free as a gift it is called a bonus issue. Both the rights issue and bonus issue are offered only to the existing shareholders. Such an issue helps to retain the shareholders. â— Private placements: Private placement happens when a firm makes a stock offer to a group of investors or any individual investor. A private placement can also allow business owners to choose investors with priorities and interests that are agreeable. Private placements are offered through private placement memorandum (PPM) rather than a prospectus. For a firm raising capital private placement is an option available in comparison to an initial public offering. A private placement is excluded from the normal reporting laws. Private placements need not be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
Advantages of Primary market
The advantages of the primary market are listed below: â— Issue at a low cost: Capital can be raised at a fairly low cost in the primary market. The securities which are issued have high liquidity. These securities can be instantly traded in the secondary market. â— Expansion of activities: When a company requires fresh funds or additional capital, the primary market helps them in raising the necessary capital. â— Mobilization of funds: Common people can invest their savings in the primary market. The funds are mobilized and put to good use. â— No market fluctuations: There are no market fluctuations to it. Until an initial public offering, stock values are already decided, and investors know the exact cost they’ll need to spend.
Disadvantages of Primary market
The disadvantages of the primary market are listed down below: â— An investor has limited details: The investor can be restricted to details before investing in any stock. Some companies which are unlisted do not come under the regulation of the U.S Securities and Exchange Commission. Therefore, the investor can invest with whatever information has been provided to him. â— Risks involved: The stocks are subjected to different degrees of risk. In the case of a fresh issue, investors cannot look at any trading patterns and analyze the benefits of investing in the company. Investors cannot make a comparison to any previous data and have to make a decision that can at times turn out to be risky. â— Unfavorable to small investors: In certain scenarios, small investors might not find it beneficial. Small investors cannot obtain share allocation if a share is over-subscribed.
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