Trophic Structure of Ecological Community

The Origin of community ecology is European plant sociology. It inspects some processes such as predators, prey population, and the variations like,


Species richness


Community structure

Species evenness

Food web The significance and values of the conception of community in ecology are in the debate. These concepts have understood traditionally and are about assembling the species. The Trophic structure is referred to as the division of biomass between the two different trophic levels; this is affected by the factors of bottom-up and top-down levels. In this trophic structure, producer biomasses are controllers and as a result, efficiency transformation between two trophic levels (bottom-up and top-down factors) represents the importance for regulatory control. At a trophic level, species are arranged by the food chain or web. A Food chain is represented as what-eats-what in an ecological community.

In trophic structure, primary producers, also known as autotrophs, fill the bottom tropic level. Autotroph means an organism to produce organic nutritional substances from inorganic substances and primary producers give their energy to consumers. This level is known as tropic level 1.

Trophic level 2 is filled by herbivores. Herbivores are primary consumers; these species take food from primary producers for their energy.

Carnivores or omnivores fill trophic level 3. Omnivore or Carnivore kinds are taking food from primary consumers and these kinds of species are considered as secondary and tertiary consumers.

Predators eat secondary and tertiary consumers such as small omnivores and carnivores. This predator fills the next level of trophic structure.

Apex predator fills the top level of the trophic structure. These predators are not consumed by any additional species in the community. Omnivores, herbivores, and carnivores are known as heterotrophs. A Heterotroph is a species that cannot produce food. An example of a food chain is a rabbit that eats grass and the rabbit is eaten by a fox. If more species are living in the environment, the food chain will become more complex. The Energy of a particular trophic level is passed upward through trophic levels. In each level of trophic structure, energy is lost by ecological inefficiencies. If other species present in the community the trophic level of that particular species will be changed. For Example, tuna will be an apex predator position since it eats small fishes like mackerel. But if a shark is present in the community that will take an apex predator position in the trophic level because sharks will eat tuna. In trophic structure, decomposer plays an important role. Decomposers give nutrients and energy to the primary producers in the community. These decomposers after taking food from dead organisms from various trophic levels and they recycle energy, give it back to the base of the food chain. Examples of decomposers are fungi and bacteria.

Influential species:
Some species are present in the community that can influence the community by the direct and indirect interaction with other species. Large changes will be there in the community, during the absence of these special species and this absence reduces the stability of the community. These special species are affected by climate changes and the presence of invasive species so these changes affect the community processes as well.

Foundation species:
The population of the species and processes of a community will be influenced by foundation species. Examples,

Red mangroves are foundation species in the marine community and their roots give a nursery bed for small fishes, like snappers.

Another example of foundation species is Whitebark pine; it enables regrowth of the other plants.

Grizzly bears take food from Whitebark pine seed.

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