The Impacts of Inflammation and Immune System

Inflammation Process
Inflammation is the body’s defense mechanism that plays a crucial part in the process of healing. The inflammations are divided into two main types that are acute inflammation and chronic inflammation.

Acute inflammation involves short-term illness or injury. Acute inflammation mainly results from an infection, injury, or exposure to a substance like dust or a bee sting. Some of the infections such as appendicitis, acute bronchitis, and ingrown toenails can lead to acute inflammation. The immune system initiates various reactions when the pathogens or damage is detected. Some of these reactions are as follows:

Local swelling is caused due to the build-up of fluid as the tissues accumulate plasma proteins.

The release of leukocytes or neutrophils at the site of the affected area is triggered as they help in fighting the pathogens.

Enlargement of the small blood vessels for the travel of plasma protein and leukocyte at the site of injury.

The symptoms of acute inflammation are not always seen, and they have a chronic fever, feeling of tiredness, and unwellness. The symptoms generally last for few days.

The heat is caused due to the increased flow of blood that warms the affected area.

Pain that occurs on the affected area continuously or when touched.

Edema is a condition of local swelling due to the accumulation of fluid and cells.

Redness is caused due to the increased blood supply in the capillaries.

Loss of functions such as sensations, and difficulty in moving and breathing.

Chronic inflammation is linked to various diseases and continues for years and months. The symptoms of chronic inflammation depend on the disease. Some of the general symptoms are fatigue and pain. The diseases that can be linked to chronic inflammation are as follows:

Rheumatoid arthritis.



Cardiovascular diseases.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.



Chronic inflammation is caused when the person has:

Persistent acute inflammation is long-term acute inflammation that is not fully recovered.

Sensitivity that is triggered due to external factors can lead to allergies.

Some non-infectious causes of chronic inflammation are obesity, tissue damage, and atherosclerosis.

The autoinflammatory disorder damages the normal tissue by the immune system, such as psoriasis.

Gut microbes that fail to show anti-pathogenic action.

Fungus and mycobacteria that release inflammatory molecules and cytokines.

Inflammatory Response
The inflammatory response occurs when the tissues are injured due to heat, toxins, injury, or various other reasons. The inflammatory response in some cases may also damage the tissues for its repair. The inflammatory response is categorized into three phases: Phase I is the acute phase, phase II is the tissue formation, known as the proliferation, and phase III is the remodeling phase.

Phase I has two subphases that are early and late phases. The early phase occurs that is the infection can be internal or external. The late phase aids in the repair of tissue and regeneration.

Phase II helps replace the destroyed cells and produces healthy cells around the wound area. The stages of regenerations start with the periphery. Re-epithelization is the proliferation of the epithelial tissues that migrate to the surrounding areas of the wound. Next, capillarization, that is the proliferation of the capillary buds, is done. The fibroblasts arise from the undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, migrate to the area along the fibrin strands, and synthesize the scar tissue. Further vascularization followed by collagen synthesis and wound contraction takes place.

Phase III is the remodeling phase that helps strengthen the repaired tissues and reduces the fibroblasts, macrophages, and myofibroblasts to the pre-injury state.


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