The concentration of stabilizers is crucial in the electroless plating baths because increasing the concentration of stabilizers beyond the critical limits results in inhibition of the electroless plating process. The stability of the electroless nickel plating bath is improved through air agitation of the electroless plating solution. However, agitation of the electroless plating solution using an inert gas, such as argon, does not affect the stability of the solution. Although pure oxygen improves the stability of the electroless nickel plating solution, the presence of oxy-anions, such as Br3â€“Â and NO2â€“, reduce the deposition rates. This is because the oxy-anions adsorb on the surface of the nickel substrate and prevent further deposition. Stabilizers used in the electroless nickel plating bath are either organic or inorganic. Organic stabilizers include acetylene dicarboxylic acid and propiolic acid. However, it is necessary to replenish continually the organic stabilizers since they are used up during the deposition reaction. This is crucial in maintaining the stability of the electroless nickel plating bath. The deposition reaction in the electroless nickel plating bath is the best at low pH, mainly between 3.8 and 4.5. Dilute sulfuric acid is frequently used to maintain the acidic condition of the plating bath to ensure that the reaction is uninhibited. During the electroless nickel plating process, it is important to ensure that the oxidation reaction is sustainable since this helps in preventing substrate dissolution. Sustainable oxidation reaction helps in producing continuously built thick deposits. At the beginning of the reaction, the deposition should exclusively and initially occur on the substrate before continuing to deposit on the initial substrate. This is important in producing nickel plating of uniform thickness.
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