Mouth: It is the first part of the upper GI tract and contains several organs that start digestion. It contains salivary glands, teeth, tongue, hard palate, and soft palate. The process of chewing occurs here.
Esophagus: It is about 25 centimeters (cm) long and 2cm in diameter. Food reaches the stomach through the esophagus. The upper and lower end of the esophagus is closed by the sphincter muscles. The upper sphincter muscles prevent the air from entering the esophagus during respiration, and the lower sphincter muscles prevent the reflux of gastric acid into the esophagus.
Stomach: It is the J-shaped dilated portions of the alimentary tract. It acts as a temporary storage place for food. The size of the stomach can vary based on the amount of food it contains.
Small intestine: The small intestine is the muscular tube that extends from the pyloric sphincter to the large intestines. It is the largest section of the GI tract.
Large intestines: It is shorter in length. It has an average length of about 1.5 meters. It is mainly divided into five parts: the caecum, appendix, colon, rectum, and anal canal.
Good health of gastrointestinal tract
The GI tract consists of the microbiome. The human body is colonized by a vast number of microbes known as the human microbiome. These bacteria can be found at various locations such as the throat, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. In a healthy individual, there are ten times more microbes than the body cells. The microbiome present in the gastrointestinal tract of an individual has a symbiotic relationship with the body, which means they work with each other and benefit each other. Most of the studies have identified through in-vitro experiments a mutual relationship between the human gut biome and the human brain. The microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract is mostly found in the large intestine. Microbiota is also found in the small intestine area of the gastrointestinal tract but small quantities. These microbes are not able to trigger the immune response in the body due to a protective layer. The colon cells are present in the lumen of the large intestine. Above the colon cells, mucus is present. This mucus acts as the barrier between the microbe community in the human body and the human cells. The gut microbiota is established in an individual’s body during birth and continues to change in composition throughout life. Various factors such as diet, medications, and lifestyle are responsible for the change in the composition of an individual’s microbiota. Due to this reason, every individual has a unique composition of the gut microbiota. Within the large intestine, the highest amount of bacteria is present in the colon area because this is where the highest amount of the substrate is present. Anaerobic bacteria dominate the microbiota present in the gut.
Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract
The GI tract is the tract in which the digestion and absorption of food take place. The GI is the tube where the food enters from one end, and wastes get out from the other end. Digestion is the process of breaking down food into smaller components so that the body can absorb them. For example, larger components of food such as starch and proteins are broken down into smaller components such as glucose and amino acids so that the body can absorb them as nutrition.
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