In recent years, the direction of creating cavityless (single-pass) X-ray lasers has begun to develop intensively, which in their characteristics (brightness, peak power) are orders of magnitude better than modern sources of synchrotron radiation. Installations of this type require the creation of undulators several hundred meters long with high requirements for periodicity, with a large amplitude and a small spread of the magnetic field. Therefore, the problem of finding new undulator circuits that will allow obtaining high amplitudes of magnetic fields and will also provide focusing of the electron beam in both transverse planes along the entire length of the magnetic system has become acute.
Principal of working with technical details and formulas
Among the various types of undulators, the ones with alternating magnetic fields are the most widely used. A schematic representation of such an undulator and the trajectory of a particle moving in it are shown in Fig. 1.
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