Main Biological Species of Thaumarchaeota

Tharumarchaea like Nitrosopumilus maritimus are marine and reside in the open ocean, whereas another marine Tharumarchaea is found in shallow waters.

Two novel species of Thaumarchaeota are found to reside in a sulfidic atmosphere of a hot mangrove swamp.

The species Candidatus Giganthauma karukerense is associated with Gammaproteobacteria and these two species may contain a symbiotic relationship.

Tharumarchaea is mesophilic.

Thaumarchaeal genomes are evolved in hot environments, and this proposes that ancestor of Thaumarchaeota. Thus, it can be concluded that Thaumarchaeota was thermophilic, and further turned to be mesophilic.

In terrestrial environments and aquatic life, most of the Thaumarchaea are significant ammonia oxidizers and are involved in nitrification.

Ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaea has the capacity of oxidizing the ammonia at a very low concentration of substrate than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Therefore, they influence oligotrophic conditions.

Ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaea could be recognized by the existence of archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes that specify their dominancy over ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

Not entire Thaumarchaea, which express transmit amoA genes are active ammonia oxidizers. Certain Thaumarchaea might have the capacity of oxidizing methane rather than ammonia.

Thaumarchaea may be heterotrophic, showing a possibility for a variety of metabolic lifestyles inside the phylum.

Marine Thaumarchaea produces nitrous oxide that is involved in the change in climate since it is a greenhouse gas.

The aerobic autotrophic pathway is not efficient as the Thaumarchaeal CO2-fixation pathway.

Since the efficiency of the Thaumarchaeal CO2-fixation pathway is high, they can grow rich in low-nutrient environments.

Nitrosopumilus maritimus, a species of Thaumarchaea is capable of incorporating both organic and inorganic carbon, denoting a capability for mixotrophy.

Thaumarchaeota produces Vitamin B12 and it plays an important role in the blooming of algae then also in the extension levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Since, Vitamin B12 is vital in biological processes like the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), citric acid cycle. The production of Vitamin B12 by Thaumarchaeota would be essential for aquatic species.

Biological Species of Thaumarchaeota
Cenarchaeum symbiosum: A psychrophilic organism is Cenarchaeum symbiosum. It has a symbiotic relationship with species of sponge that lives in 10-20meters(m) depths.

Nitrososphaera viennensis: It is irregular, spherical. Nitrososphaera viennensis is an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon that has a cell diameter of 0.5-0.8 micrometers (µm). The first cultivated archaeal ammonia oxidizer is Nitrososphaera viennensis. Nitrososphaera viennensis is used in the form of ammonia or urea as a source of energy in laboratory conditions.

Nitrososphaera gargensis: It is small, and is not pathogenic. It contains a cell membrane that is made of crenarchaeol. Nitrososphaera gargensis plays the main role in the ocean community’s influence and the production of food. In the presence of glycerol dialkyl, glycerol tetraether plays an important role in finding ammonia-oxidizing archaea.

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