Collectively, these results suggest that environmental factors can induce stable alterations of epigenetic modifications, providing a mechanism by which environmental factors may lead to long-term biological effect and disease. Further studies are required to determine the extent to which epigenetic modification are involved in gene-environment interaction sin human and how environmental influences may transduce into epigenetic modifications (Corpet & Almouzni, 2007).
Implications for reducing disease risk
Epigenetic modifications have replenished the interest in the interaction between the environment and the genome. Through this paper, results from numerous studies demonstrates that epigenetic modifications is influenced by the environment, however, a key feature that distinguishes epigenetic modifications from genetic changes is their reversible nature, which provide exciting implications for identification of a multitude of preventive and therapeutic interventions of a wide range of disorders across the lifespan while reinforcing the idea that our genes are not our destiny (Stein, 2012).
Further knowledge and understanding regarding epigenetic modifications using the MZ model will lead to identifying susceptibility for certain disease through categorizing molecular mechanisms that trigger periods of biological vulnerability. The good news is evidence show that epigenetic modifications are reversible; the supportive evidence addressed earlier opens a window for a variety of novel epigenetic-based interventions that could be implemented at periods of biological vulnerability to prevent the harmful effects of stress and decrease incidence of disease.
Identical twins are found to differ in gene expression because of changes in methylation caused by factors such as diet, chemicals in the environment and relational experiences during early development, including caregiverâ€“infant interactions (Hochberg et al., 2011). The development of interventions will aid in adjusting the influences of the environment upon the genome while reversing and /or preventing epigenetic modifications in order to improve health and quality of life. Several behavioral implications, nutritional implications and pharmacological implications are identified in the sections for the potential of reducing the risk for disease over the lifespan.
First, there are several behavioral therapies that could be aimed to alleviate stress or other environmental factors. For example, exercise is one the behavioral implication that will result in weight loss and provide resistance to stress-induced chromatin remodeling within the dentate gyrus. In hase been shown in rats who were exposed to greater physical activity prior to stress exposure, exhibit resistance to stress-induced chromatin remodeling within the dentate gyrus (Bilang-Bleuel et al., 2005). These findings demonstrate that stress-related learning results in hippocampal chromatin remodeling, which may facilitate behavioral adaptation to environmental challenge. This opens a wide window for the exploration of other behavioral life-style changes that aid in the prevention or restoration of epigenetic modification (Mathews and Janusek, 2011)
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