Microbial communities are capable of self-organization and self-sustenance. When managed properly in accordance with the five principles of good management, they provide a number of benefits that include (Rittman 2006, 261):
- Detoxification of wastewater
- Capturing renewable resources such as energy and water
- Sensing pathogens in the environment
- Public protection against dangerous exposure to pathogens
The attached and suspended growth biological wastewater treatment processes: a Comparison
Attached and suspended growth biological wastewater treatment processes are classified under secondary wastewater treatment processes. They both rely on microorganisms for their operations. These microorganisms feed upon organic material in the waste for sustenance and reproduction. In addition, they create settleable solids from the nonsettleable ones (WEF 2008, 2-11). Both processes operate on the basis of two modes: in the presence of oxygen (aerobic) and in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic). Both processes are very efficient and effective in wastewater treatment processes but both processes are expensive in investment and operation.
The microorganisms in suspended growth processes that are responsible for wastewater treatment are kept in liquid suspension through mixing and aeration to ensure that aerobic conditions are maintained. Continuous flow-activated sludge is the principal suspended process (Fig 4). While compared to the attached growth wastewater treatment processes, the attached process has a medium, for example rotating disks, fixed packing, or granular medium packing-which is utilized for the attachment of microorganisms and formation of a biofilm. This bio-film gets into contact with the microorganisms and the organic matter present is sequentially oxidized. The growth of the microorganisms is simultaneous with their sloughing from the surface of the medium. They are then removed by a solids separation device which is normally a filter and/or a gravity settling tank (Surampalli 2004).
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